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An Interview of
Dr. Klaus Kronenberg, Ph. D.


The Answers - Page 2


2. Why does hard lime scale grow on the walls of water containers?

Because no other crystallization points are available inside most waters.

Calcium carbonate, also called lime, is in dissolved form in most waters. However, as soon as the concentration increases, due to the evaporation of the water, or if the temperature rises, the lime content may exceed its solubility limit. Then the most basic law of' thermodynamics demands the lime solidify.

In order to change from a dissolved liquid to a solid material, the dissolved material needs starting points for its crystallization. Only non-water materials can provide such starting points, called crystallization centers.

In untreated water, all non-water particles are "encaged" in the super-molecules, incapacitated as starting points in the required phase change. (For the same reason, distilled water may overheat when it is heated without a boiling initiator.)

The only non-water materials are found at the walls of the container. Consequently, starting points for the solidification of lime are only at the walls. There lime will grow as crystals firmly attached to the crystallization centers on the walls. The crystals spread out to form hard lime scale.

It is the lack of available crystallization centers inside most waters which forces the dissolved, over-concentrated calcium carbonate to attach itself firmly to the container walls.

Lime scale can be prevented by adding particles to the water, providing seeding - the necessary starting points inside the water for the crystallization of the over-concentrated lime. (Similarly, the creation of vapor trails by high-flying aircraft results from the provision of necessary crystallization starting points by the exhaust to the over-concentrated moisture in dust-free high altitude.)

A method of providing crystallization centers in the water is to activate particles already existing inside the water but formerly incapacitated by being encaged inside the super-molecules of the water.

This is the method used by the magnetic water treatment.


3. What is magnetic water treatment?

Activating crystallization starting points inside the water.

It is known that the super-molecules encircle the water particles in the water (Figure 2 on previous page). They literally encage non-water particles, rendering them unavailable as crystallization centers.

Physical treatment of liquid water results in the fracturing of some of the super-molecules. This releases some formerly encaged particles, which are set free inside the water. They may then serve as crystallization centers for the solidification of calcium carbonate.

Magnet water treatment does not change the chemistry of the water. It alters the structure of liquid water. Similar changes of the structure of liquid water occur as the result of mechanical disturbances, such as falling in rain or being centrifuged. Electrical fields and electric sparks can have similar effects, and electromagnetic fields can also he used fur the physical treatment of water.

The reason for using the magnetic fields of permanent magnets is their convenience and economy. They deliver magnetic fields dependably without any power source, without maintenance, without wear, and without ever weakening from outer influences.


4. How does magnetic water treatment work?

It cracks open some of the water super-molecules, which sets the formerly encaged non-water particles free, making them available as crystallization starting centers.

According to physical laws, "flow rate,'' the interaction between magnetic fields and water molecules, is weak. There would not be any effect on standing water. However, in a magnetic treatment device, as the water passes through the magnetic field, all super-molecules vibrate. The ones with a vibration frequency close to the frequency of the magnetic field sequence come into resonance with the magnetic field sequence. This will intensify the internal vibration of these super-molecules to the breaking point. These super-molecules fracture and release their encaged particles.

A freed non-water particle is surrounded by countless calcium carbonate molecules in need of a crystallization center. They stream from all sides to the freed particle and form concentric rings around it. Within a few minutes many rings grow around one another and form a solid disc. These discs are not attached to anything. They flow with the water. The discs contain in solid form the lime which had been dissolved in the water and would otherwise attach to the walls of the container. Compared to untreated water, the hard lime scale in magnetically-treated water has been substantially reduced.


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