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An Interview of
Dr. Klaus Kronenberg, Ph. D.

The Answers - Page 3

5. Do we have visible evidence for these processes?

Yes, by microscopic observation of water residues.

After 1981, scientific evidence for the processes described in question 4 was produced. Since 1985 the evidence has been published in scientific and trade journals. (Some of the author's own publications on the subject include: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 21, No.5, September 1985; Room and Zeit (in German and English): Der Wasserspiegel (in German); Aqua, August and September 1993; IBZ (in German).)

Normally, this process becomes visible to the unaided eye only after weeks of water use. However, a high--power microscope detects the starting growth of hard lime scale within it few hours.

Measured drops of water are deposited on microscope glass slides, where they must evaporate undisturbed. When dry, they are investigated under a microscope with polarizing light. Because of their optical properties, the polarizing light makes the crystals of calcium carbonate stand out (Figures 3 - 6).

The spots on the slides occupied by the drops of untreated water (Figure 3 ) reveal their lime content in the form of the typical prismatic crystals of calcium carbonate (''hard crystals"), mainly along the rim of the drop.

The spots on the slides occupied by the drops of water which had been magnetically treated (Figure 4) are covered with the circular crystal platelets, typical seeded crystals.

Figure 3 - Untreated Water Magnified 200 times. Figure 4 - Water Treated with GMX Magnetic Water Softeners Magnified 200 times.
Figure 3
Untreated Water
(Magnified 200 times)
Figure 4
GMX Treated Water
(Magnified 200 times)

The drops of water evaporated side by side on the same glass slide under identical conditions.

The number of the hard crystals on the same size water drops are compared. The reduced number of lime crystals along the rim of the treated water drops is used as a direct measure of the reduction of the hard lime scale by the treatment.

In this example the magnetic treatment was about 92% effective. The untreated water produced 220 hard crystals per 50 microgram drop: the treated water, less than 18.

Higher magnification of the evaporated drops reveals that the calcium carbonate of the treated water has formed circular, disc-shaped crystals, which are widely distributed over the surface of the drop, as compared with the large prism-shaped crystals grown in the untreated water on the glass.

These disc shaped crystals with their specific appearance in the polarized light are well known in solid state physics to he "seeded crystals." This means the crystals have grown around a "seed" that became available to the solidifying lime as a welcome starting center for its solidification.

Click to Image to Enlarge
Figure 5 - Untreated Water Magnified 1100 times. Figure 6 - Water Treated with GMX Magnetic Water Softeners Magnified 200 times.
Figure 5
Untreated Water
(Magnified 1100 times)
Figure 6
GMX Treated Water
(Magnified 1100 times)

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